Just Some Random Notes on Phased Arrays, EM-Theory, etc.

Click the following links for downloading the corresponding PDF files. If you want the clip-art used in these files, click here.

Phased Arrays & Antennas:

  1. My Thoughts on Ludwig Polarization Definitions – I (Last revision: 22/07/2011)
  2. My Thoughts on Ludwig Polarization Definitions – II (Last revision: 22/07/2011) … These two articles are meant to understand the concept of polarization more clearly. In my opinion, Ludwig-3 definition is still a good compromise among various available polarization definitions.
  3. Gain vs Directvity (related to antenna arrays) (Last revision: 15/03/2011)
  4. Array Basics
  5. Optimum Endfire Patterns (Last revision: 17/07/2011)
  6. T. T. Taylor’s Asymptotic Theory (Last revision: 04/08/2011)
  7. On the Generalization of Taylor and Bayliss n-bar Array Distributions (Last revision: 10/08/2011)
  8. Phase Array Scan Theory (grating-lobe analysis)
  9. Circular Arrays (Last revision: 14/01/2011)
  10. Far-field Green’s Functions for Infinitesimal Dipoles Oriented Along Different Directions
  11. Solid Angle in (Kx, ky) – Domain
  12. Induced Currents on Conic Sections (reflector antenna theory)

Electromagnetics & Microwave Circuits:

  1. Conic Sections
  2. A Summary of Asymptotic Evaluation of Integrals (Last revision: 27/12/2010)
  3. Calculus of Variations – I (Last revision: 12/04/2011)
  4. Calculus of Variations – II (Last revision: 14/04/2011)

Note: These articles are just for guidance and may contain errors. So, please make sure you double-check them.

MATLAB Based Toolbox for Phased Array Antenna Design and Analysis

Regarding my previous project (MATLAB version of the “Arraytool”, which is not open source)

When I was an undergraduate, I had this wonderful opportunity to study a book by “E. C. Jordan & K. G. Balmain”. The book was Electromagnetic Waves And Radiating SystemsIt introduced me to a wonderful world of radiation, fields, antennas and so many other things. But one thing that really attracted me was the concept of analysis and synthesis of antenna arrays. Though the theory provided on antenna arrays in that book is not of advanced level, it gave me an insight into this beautiful world of imaginary electromagnetic waves trying to co-ordinate (interfere) with each other so that they can fulfill their assigned  jobs (like scanning or adjusting side lobes, etc).

But unfortunately to analyze even a very simple array, I had to do cumbersome array factor evaluations to finding pattern nulls, gain, etc. I am not saying that those calculations were useless. As a matter of fact, those manual computations give us very interesting insight into concepts such as grating lobes, side-lobe level, etc. However, human brains have their limitations. So, as the number of array elements increases, we need to use computer for all those numerical calculations.

However, we don’t have proper tools to educate students (or engineers) on this topic. Yes, we do have CAD tools such as HFSS, CST, ADS, etc … and they are very helpful for a microwave engineer. But, a devoted tool providing all possible solutions for antenna arrays is not available at this moment.

So, I decided to create a GUI program based on MATLAB which can answer at least some of the very important issues related my favorite topic. This project is still under construction like all my other projects … 🙂


At the time of writing this post, I was not aware of the following tools which also deal with phased array antenna design:

Anyhow, here are some screen-shots of the “partially completed program” :

Grating-Lobe Analysis (Circular Pyramidal Scan)
Grating-Lobe Analysis (Rectangular Pyramidal Scan)

For further information regarding Grating Lobe Analysis, click here.

A simple linear Taylor array (rectangular radiation pattern)
A simple linear Taylor array (rectangular radiation pattern)

For further information on Generalized Discrete Taylor & Bayliss Distribution, click here.

A simple linear Dolph-Chebyshev array (polar radiation pattern)
Pattern-Multiplication shown in rectangular plot
Pattern-Multiplication shown in polar plot
Radiation pattern cuts (Theta & Phi) in UV-domain
Contour as well as 3D patterns corresponding to a linear array
Contour as well as 3D patterns corresponding to a planar array (Circular Taylor)
Pattern corresponding to a given arbitrary array excitation I/P
Shaped beam Synthesis (here, using simple Woodward-Lawson method)
Shaped beam Synthesis (here, using simple Woodward-Lawson method)